Travel Trailer Towing Theory Test – Answers

Feb 8, 2021

Travel Trailer Towing Theory Test

Answers

Legal & Technical Items – Terminology; Ratings & Masses

1: What do the following abbreviations mean:

ATM: (c) Aggregate Trailer Mass
GTM: (b) Gross Trailer Mass
(Tow vehicle) GVM: (a) Gross Vehicle Mass
(Tow vehicle) GCM: (c) Gross Combination Mass

2: Are the above items “Actual Masses” or “Ratings”:

© Ratings

3: Are “Tare Mass” & “Ball-loading “actual masses” or “Ratings”:

© Actual Masses

4: The definition of “TARE MASS” for a Travel Trailer is:

(a) The actual mass of the empty travel trailer with all OEM equipment and options fitted – as specified on the Sales Contract – as it leaves the SUPPLIER, with empty water tanks and empty LPG cylinders, and without any luggage or personal effects. This is measured with the jockey-wheel and tyres on the weigh-bridge.

5: What do each of the elements of a tyre designation mean:

LT – P 225 / 85 R 16 90 Q
LT: (b) Light Truck
P: (c) Passenger (car)
225: (c) Section Width (mm)
85: (b) Profile Ratio (%)
R: (a) Radial Construction
16: (b) Rim Diameter (“)
90: (b) Load Rating
Q: (a) Speed Rating

6: What is the standard size for a Ball-Coupling:

(a) 50 mm

7: What does ADR stand for:

© Australian Design Rule

8: What does AS stand for:

(a) Australian Standard

9: Does the Tyre & Rim Association Manual give:

© The correct tyre / rim combinations, and the recommended inflation pressures for all tyre sizes, to suit the tyre loading.

10: Are Ball-Couplings suitable for off-road operation:

(b) No

11: Brakes are required on travel trailers:

(c) If the GTM Rating is above 750 kg

12: Break-away brakes are required:

(b) If the GTM Rating is above 2,000 kg

13: ABS (on tow-vehicle) stands for:

(c) Anti-lock Braking System

14: If ABS is fitted to the tow-vehicle, will it also automatically work on the travel trailer:

(a) No

15: The Ball-loading at any time:

(c) Should be around 10% of the travel trailer mass (if not otherwise advised by the manufacturer, in writing)

16: If the Ball-loading is too LIGHT:

(b) The travel trailer/trailer will most likely develop a most dangerous sway (snaking) situation

17: If the Ball-loading is too HEAVY:

(c) Handling, steering and safety will be dangerously impaired, and the tow-bar may fail

18: Heavy items should be stored in the travel trailer:

(c) As close as possible to the axle(s)

19: If the travel trailer tyre pressures are too LOW:

(b) The vehicle will sway and wallow, and the outer edges of the tread will wear out

20: If the travel trailer tyre pressures are too HIGH:

(a) The vehicle will skip and bounce, and the centre of the tread will wear out

21: The travel trailer allowable/legal Pay-load (Load-carrying capacity) is:

(b) ATM Rating – (minus) Tare Mass

22: The left-side and right-side brakes should be:

(a) Regularly checked for wear, and adjusted evenly

23: The travel trailer lamps:

(c) Should be checked for correct operation before setting off on a trip

24: When towing a travel trailer, added or extended mirrors:

(b) Must be used so as to obtain a clear field-of-view along each side of the vehicle

25: When towing a travel trailer, the time and distance needed to accelerate from 60 – 80km/h (compared to just driving the tow-vehicle) are:

(b) Appreciably much longer

26: When towing a travel trailer, the time and distance needed to slow down from 80 – 60km/h (compared to just driving the tow-vehicle) are:

(c) Appreciably much longer

27: When towing a travel trailer around a curve, you should:

(b) Slow down, because of the additional centrifugal force, and risk of swaying

28: Doubling your speed – say from 40 – 80 km/h – will:

(b) Increase the kinetic-energy – and braking distance – by a factor of 4 (four)

29: If you see a B-Double approaching (from the front or rear), you should:

(c) Slow down a little, and firmly hold the steering wheel in case a “sway” starts

30: If the travel trailer starts to “sway” or “snake”, you should:

(c) Don’t panic and don’t make any sudden/severe manoeuvres, but gently slow down, ensuring that you keep steering in the direction that you need to.

 


It is suggested that all caravanners consider participating in a respected driver-training course for Towing.
In addition, it is recommended that all caravanners peruse professional DVD’s or books on Towing Safety.
Remember: You are driving for Recreation… not Wreck-Creation!!!

Travel Trailer Ratings & Masses

The GTM & ATM are RATINGS… allocated by the Manufacturer
The Tare Mass and Ball-Loading are ACTUAL MASSES… that must be MEASURED
The TARE MASS is the actual measured mass of the vehicle as it leaves the SUPPLIER.
The vehicle is fitted with everything that was stated on the Purchase Contract.
The vehicle is empty. The gas cylinder(s) and the water tank(s) must be empty.
Legal Load-Carrying Capacity = ATM Rating – Tare Mass
ATM: Aggregate Trailer Mass (Rating)
GTM: Gross Trailer Mass (Rating)
The GTM Rating must NOT exceed the lowest of the “Axle-Group” Ratings.
The “Axle-Group” comprises the:
· Wheels & Tyres
· Suspension Structure
· Springs
· Axles & Wheel-Bearings
Tow-Vehicles:
· GVM: Gross Vehicle Mass (Rating)
· GCM: Gross Combination Mass (Rating)
· RAC: Rear Axle Capacity (Rating)
· Maximum Permitted Towing Capacity: (Rating)
· Maximum Permitted Coupling Down-load Capacity: (Rating)
Tow-Bar:
Maximum Permitted Towing & Down-load Limits: (Ratings)

Test created by:
Colin G Young  [P.Eng.]
Member:  IEAust & SAE
(Honorary Manager & Professional Automotive Engineer)
Caravan Council of Australia
www.caravancouncil.com.au
caravancouncil@optusnet.com.au
Tel:  0409 865 399

Why Caravans Roll Over
and how to prevent it

Explains in detail every aspect of tow vehicle and caravan stability. This is what you need to know to be safe on or off the road.

eBook versions

Paperback version

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Any bookshop, whether online or bricks and mortar, can order copies of Why Caravans Roll Over.  Just ask.
ISBN: 978-0-6483190-6-1

The Caravan & Motorhome Book

The Caravan & Motorhome Book covers every conceivable aspect of campervan and motorhome usage. If you own a camper van or motor home, you'll want this book.

eBook versions

Paperback version

The book retailers set their own prices which can vary substantially. We'll aim to keep a selection of the better prices above.

Any bookshop, whether online or bricks and mortar, can order copies of The Caravan & Motorhome Book. Just ask.
ISBN: 978-0-6483190-5-4.

The Caravan & Motorhome Book

The Caravan & Motorhome Book covers every conceivable aspect of campervan and motorhome usage. If you own a camper van or motor home, you'll want this book.

eBook versions

Paperback version

The book retailers set their own prices which can vary substantially. We'll aim to keep a selection of the better prices above.

Any bookshop, whether online or bricks and mortar, can order copies of The Caravan & Motorhome Book. Just ask.
ISBN: 978-0-6483190-5-4.

Why Caravans Roll Over
and how to prevent it

Explains in detail every aspect of tow vehicle and caravan stability. This is what you need to know to be safe on or off the road.

eBook versions

Paperback version

The book retailers set their own prices which can vary substantially. We'll aim to keep a selection of the better prices above.

Any bookshop, whether online or bricks and mortar, can order copies of Why Caravans Roll Over.  Just ask.
ISBN: 978-0-6483190-6-1